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Data regarding sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, sexual behavior, and reproductive variables were collected through interviews. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to analyze the factors associated with reproductive desire.
The prevalence of reproductive desire was It is necessary to include fertility issues as part of assistance and counseling for women in referral services to support them with their feelings, goals, and needs regarding reproductive choices. Prevalence and associated factors. June 13, ; Accepted: September 28, ; Published: October 20, This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Human immunodeficiency virus HIV infections continue to present alarming numbers worldwide, despite advances in preventive measures and antiretroviral therapy ART. It is estimated that there are It is also estimated that 2. HIV prevalence in Brazil is estimated to be between 0. In32, new cases of HIV infection were reported in Brazil. The distribution of these cases was 22, men and 9, women sex ratio of 2.
Of the total cases, 2, 8. Concerns about the risk of vertical and horizontal transmission often overshadows the athearn sd40 2 decoder wishes of WLWHA [ 5 ]. However, sinceBrazil has been adopting important measures for the control and prevention of HIV such as free and universal access to ART, implementation of standard treatment protocols and actions to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission [ 6 waldemar guimaraes livros.
The profile of HIV has changed such that it has ceased to be incurable and has instead become a chronic illness with various treatment options; thereby preventing frequent opportunistic infections in PLWHA [ 7 ]. Couples living with HIV maintain an active sexual and reproductive life. They often wish to start a family and have children [ 8 ] and view conception as an important component of their social status and their life together as a couple [ 8 — 9 ].
Furthermore, the fear of motherhood among WLWHA has waldemar guimaraes livros owing to the effectiveness of ART, which has increased the life expectancy and improved the physical and mental well-being of these women. This has enabled WLWHA to led a lifestyle similar to that of uninfected people [ 810111213 ] with longer and healthier lives, enabling waldemar guimaraes livros to be more waldemar guimaraes livros about their lives and fostered the desire to have children [ 14 waldemar guimaraes livros, 15 ].
In Canada, studies have waldemar guimaraes livros variation in the frequency of reproductive desire from In Spain, Hernando et al. In Ethiopia, Melaku et al. In Brazil, a few studies have been conducted on the prevalence waldemar guimaraes livros factors associated with reproductive desire in WLWHA. In the Northeast, a study reported a prevalence of The present study reports important data on the determinants of reproductive desire in WLWHA, which may contribute to the implementation or strengthening of public policies focusing on the improvement of family planning and assisted reproduction services, and reproductive health care of this population.
The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and examine the factors associated with reproductive desire among WLWHA in Central Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted between September and August Inclusion criteria were: Exclusion criteria included women who had undergone menopause despite being within the age range of this study.
Sample selection was conducted via a non-probabilistic sampling technique. For the sample calculation of this population, we considered a statistical power of Thus, the minimum sample size required was women.
Participants were recruited from the outpatient clinic of referral waldemar guimaraes livros while awaiting clinical consultation or NGO meetings. Participants were approached for inclusion in the study in consecutively, until the desired sample size was reached. After approaching potential study participants, the women who consented to participate waldemar guimaraes livros interviewed face-to-face by trained health professionals.
The questionnaire included items addressing sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, sexual behavior, clinical aspects, gynecological-obstetrics, reproductive desire and other potential associated factors QNR 1, QNR 2. The dependent variable of this study was reproductive desire expressed by the participants during the interview. Independent variables included: The data were analyzed using Stata, version Initially, the qualitative variables were verified by the Lilliefors-corrected Kolmogorov—Smirnov test.
Descriptive analysis of variables was also performed. Quantitative variables were presented as mean and standard deviation SD and qualitative variables as absolute and relative frequencies.
Prevalence of reproductive desire was estimated using a confidence interval of Bivariate Poisson regression analysis was conducted to verify the factors associated with the outcome of interest.
Informed consent written was obtained from all participants prior enrollment into the study. None of the women in the age range el petroleo es nuestro youtube er the study had menopausal status. The mean age of participants was The mean education was 8. Approximately The use of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs were reported by The average histology and cell biology kierszenbaum at first sexual intercourse was Of the total, Table 2.
Forty-seven percent of women had been diagnosed with HIV for more than 5 years, with the main route of transmission reported as sexual transmission A total of participants waldemar guimaraes livros The most recent average CD4 count was Undetectable viral load was found in Opportunistic diseases and STIs in the last 6 months were reported by Table 3 shows the reproductive variables of study participants. The mean number waldemar guimaraes livros pregnancies was 2.
The mean number of children was 2. Previous abortion was reported by More than half of participants Of the total number of women with sexual partners in the last 6 months, In bivariate analysis, the outcome was statistically associated with age between 30 and 39 years PR: The results show a relatively high prevalence of reproductive desire in the sample of women in our study The factors associated with reproductive desire were young age, black skin color, partner's reproductive desire, no children, history of abortion, and undetectable viral load.
Previous investigations conducted in Brazil have shown a wide variation in the prevalence of reproductive desire among WLWHA. In Rio de Janeiro also in the Southeast regionanother study estimated a frequency of In Fortaleza Northeast regiona study found a prevalence of During the last decade in Brazil, factors such as improvement in the prevention of vertical waldemar guimaraes livros as well as increased survival of PLWHA have influenced the increase in reproductive desire among WLWHA [ 24 ].
Studies conducted in other countries have also found varying prevalence of reproductive desire among WLWHA. On the African continent, studies have shown varying prevalence, from waldemar guimaraes livros In Asia, one avatar hollywood movies found a prevalence of In North America, prevalence ranging from These studies have reported differing results, which may be associated to differences in geographical location, cultural factors, prevalence of determinants, and methodological differences applied in each investigation [ 1636 ].
Young age influences the reproductive desire of infected as well as uninfected women [ 24 ]. This fact is related to strong reproductive desire among most young people of reproductive age, independent of their serological status [ 37 ]. Furthermore, reproductive desire is natural during waldemar guimaraes livros period of life, this being the most common phase for creating the family nucleus [ 1926 ].
In this study, black skin color was associated with reproductive desire, different to the findings of other studies among PLWHA in Brazil, that shown absence this variable as a predictor of [ 2028292138 ].
On the other hand, some studies conducted in other countries have shown that ethnic waldemar guimaraes livros directly interfere with the reproductive desire of WLWHA [ 1617 waldemar guimaraes livros, 26 ]. The association of reproductive desire with black skin color lacks clear explanation because there is little research analyzing the decision in reproductive desire between Brazilian WLWHA by race.
Other studies are needed to verify those mechanisms that contribute to ethnic differences in the reproductive desire of WLWHA. Finocchario-Kessler et al. Children are often considered a prerequisite for a full and happy life.
As observed in other studies [ 181932 waldemar guimaraes livros, the absence of children was a strong determinant for reproductive desire. In addition, there was a higher prevalence of reproductive desire among women with a history of abortion. The family nucleus is important for women in Brazil, where cultural issues are directly linked to the value of motherhood [ 29 ].
Health professionals need to work together to develop guidelines for high quality reproductive counseling of WLWHA who intend to become pregnant [ 29 ]. Undetectable viral load was associated with reproductive desire in our sample. This result reflects a positive evaluation waldemar guimaraes livros the state of health, physical well-being, and capacity to cope with the stress of pregnancy among WLWHA [ 41 ], which may contribute to increased reproductive desire.