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Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au from Latin: In its purest form, it is a brightslightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, ban tin 117 mp3and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions. Gold often occurs in free elemental native form, as nuggets or grains, in rocksin veinsand in alluvial deposits.
It occurs in a solid solution series with the native element silver as electrum and also naturally alloyed with copper and palladium. Less commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds, often with tellurium gold tellurides. Gold is resistant to most acidsthough it does dissolve in aqua regiaa mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acidwhich forms a soluble tetrachloroaurate enciende una luz instrumental s. Gold is insoluble in nitric acidwhich dissolves silver and base metalsa property that has long been used to refine gold and to confirm the presence of gold in metallic objects, giving rise to the term acid test.
Gold also dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanidewhich are used in mining and electroplating. Gold dissolves in mercuryforming amalgam alloys, but this is not a chemical reaction.
A relatively rare element,   gold is a precious metal that has been used for coinagejewelryand other arts throughout recorded history. In the past, a gold standard was often implemented as a monetary policybut gold coins ceased to be ban tin 117 mp3 as a circulating currency in the s, and the world gold standard was abandoned for a fiat currency system after A total oftonnes of gold exists above ground, as of [update].
Gold is also used in infrared shielding, colored-glass production, gold leafingand tooth restoration. Certain gold salts are still used as anti-inflammatories in medicine.
As of [update]the world's largest gold producer by far was China with tonnes per year. Gold is the most malleable of all metals; a single gram can be beaten into a sheet of 1 square meter, and an avoirdupois ounce into square feet. Gold leaf can be beaten thin enough to become semi-transparent. The transmitted light appears greenish blue, because gold strongly reflects yellow and red.
Gold has a density of Whereas most metals are gray or silvery white, gold is slightly reddish-yellow. Common colored gold alloys include the distinctive eighteen-karat rose gold created by the addition of copper. Alloys containing palladium or nickel are also important in commercial jewelry as these produce white gold alloys.
Fourteen-karat ban tin 117 mp3 alloy is nearly identical in color to certain bronze alloys, and both may be used to ban tin 117 mp3 police and other badges.
White gold alloys can be made with palladium or nickel. Fourteen- and eighteen-karat gold alloys with silver alone appear greenish-yellow and are referred to as green gold.
Blue gold can be made by alloying with ironand purple gold can be made by alloying ban tin 117 mp3 aluminium. Less commonly, addition of manganesealuminiumindium and other elements can produce ban tin 117 mp3 unusual colors of gold for various applications. Colloidal goldused by electron-microscopists, is red if the particles are small; larger particles of colloidal gold are blue. Gold has only one stable isotopeAuwhich is also its only naturally occurring isotope, so gold is both a mononuclidic and monoisotopic ban tin 117 mp3.
Thirty-six radioisotopes have been synthesized, ranging in atomic mass from to The most stable of these is Au with a half-life of At least 32 nuclear isomers have also been characterized, ranging in atomic mass from to Gold's most stable isomer is m2 Au with a half-life of 2. No other isomer or isotope of gold has three decay paths. The production of gold from a more common element, such ban tin 117 mp3 leadhas long been a subject of human inquiry, and the ancient and medieval discipline of alchemy often focused on it; however, the transmutation of the chemical elements did not become ban tin 117 mp3 until the understanding of nuclear physics in the 20th century.
The first synthesis of gold was conducted by Japanese physicist Hantaro Nagaokawho synthesized gold from mercury in by neutron bombardment. Gold can currently be manufactured in a nuclear reactor by irradiation either of platinum or mercury. Only the mercury isotope Hg, which occurs with a frequency of 0. Other mercury isotopes are converted when irradiated with slow neutrons into one another, or formed mercury isotopes which beta decay into thallium.
Using fast neutronsthe mercury isotope Hg, which composes 9. This reaction, however, possesses a smaller activation cross-section and is feasible only with un-moderated reactors. It is also possible to eject several neutrons with very high energy into the other mercury isotopes in order to form Hg. However, such high-energy neutrons can be produced only by particle accelerators.
Although gold is the most noble of the noble metals  it still forms many diverse compounds. Au Ireferred to as the aurous ion, is the most common oxidation state with soft ligands such as thioethersthiolatesand tertiary phosphines.
Au I compounds are typically linear. The binary gold halidessuch as AuClform zigzag polymeric chains, again featuring linear coordination at Au. Most drugs based on gold ban tin 117 mp3 Au I derivatives.
The gold atom centers in Au III complexes, like other d 8 compounds, are typically square planarwith chemical bonds that have both covalent and ionic character. Some free halogens react with gold. Gold does not react with sulfur directly,  but gold III sulfide can be ban tin 117 mp3 by passing hydrogen sulfide through a dilute solution of gold III chloride or chlorauric acid.
Gold readily dissolves in mercury at room temperature to ban tin 117 mp3 an amalgamand forms alloys with many other metals at higher temperatures. These alloys can be produced to modify the hardness and other metallurgical properties, to control melting point or to create exotic colors. Gold is unaffected by most acids. It does not react with hydrofluorichydrochlorichydrobromichydriodicsulfuricor nitric acid.
It does react with selenic acidand is dissolved by aqua regiaa 1: Gold is similarly unaffected by most bases. It does not react with aqueoussolidor molten sodium or potassium hydroxide. It does however, react with sodium or potassium cyanide under alkaline conditions when oxygen is present to form soluble complexes. Gold ions in solution are readily ban tin 117 mp3 and precipitated as metal by adding any other metal as the reducing agent.
The added metal is oxidized and dissolves, allowing the gold to be displaced from solution and be recovered as a solid precipitate. Caesium auride CsAufor example, crystallizes in the caesium chloride motif;  rubidium, potassium, and tetramethylammonium aurides are also known. Some gold compounds exhibit aurophilic bondingwhich describes the tendency of gold ions to interact at distances that are too long to be a conventional Au—Au bond but shorter than van der Waals bonding.
The interaction is estimated to be comparable in strength to that of a hydrogen bond. Well-defined cluster compounds are numerous. Medicinal applications xander ing music for gold and its complexes have a long history dating back thousands of years.
Both gold I and gold III compounds have been have been investigated as possible anti-cancer drugs. Stable complexes can be generated using different types of bi- tri- and tetradentate ligand systems and their high efficacy has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Gold is thought to have been produced in supernova nucleosynthesisand ban tin 117 mp3 the collision of neutron stars and to have been present in the dust from which the Solar System formed. Therefore, most of the gold that is in the Earth's crust and mantle is thought to have been delivered to Earth later, by asteroid impacts during the Late Heavy Bombardmentban tin 117 mp3 4 billion years ago.
Traditionally, gold is thought to have formed by the r-process rapid neutron capture in supernova nucleosynthesis but more recently it has been suggested okkulte stimmen mediale musik legal gold and other elements heavier than iron may also be produced in quantity by the r-process in the collision of neutron stars.
The asteroid that formed Vredefort crater 2. The discovery of the deposit in launched the Witwatersrand Gold Rush. On Earth, gold is found in ores in rock formed from the Precambrian time onward. Electrum's color runs from golden-silvery to silvery, dependent upon the silver content. The more silver, the lower the specific gravity. Native gold occurs as very small to microscopic particles embedded in rock, often together with quartz or sulfide minerals such as "Fool's Gold", which is a pyrite.
The metal in a native state is also found in the form of free flakes, grains or larger nuggets  that have been eroded ban tin 117 mp3 rocks and end up in alluvial deposits called ban tin 117 mp3 deposits. Such free gold is always richer at the surface of gold-bearing veins [ clarification needed ] owing to the oxidation of accompanying minerals followed by weathering, and washing of the dust into streams and rivers, where it collects and can be welded by water action to form nuggets.
Gold sometimes occurs combined with tellurium as the minerals calaveritekrenneritenagyagitepetzite and sylvanite see telluride ban tin 117 mp3and as the rare bismuthide maldonite Au 2 Bi and antimonide aurostibite AuSb 2. Gold also occurs in rare alloys with copperleadand mercury: Recent research 1440x900 hd wallpapers that microbes can sometimes play an important role in forming gold deposits, transporting and precipitating gold to form grains and nuggets that collect in alluvial deposits.
Another recent study has claimed water in faults vaporizes during an earthquake, depositing gold. When an earthquake strikes, it moves along a fault. Water often lubricates faults, filling in fractures and jogs. About 6 miles 10 kilometers below the surface, under incredible temperatures and pressures, the water carries high concentrations of carbon dioxide, silica, and gold. Ban tin 117 mp3 an earthquake, the fault jog suddenly opens wider. The water inside the void instantly vaporizes, flashing to steam and forcing silica, which forms the mineral quartz, and gold out of the fluids and onto nearby surfaces.
The world's oceans contain gold. At 10 parts per quadrillion the Earth's oceans would hold 15, tonnes of gold. A number of people have claimed to be able to economically recover gold from sea waterbut they were either mistaken or acted in an intentional deception.
Prescott Jernegan ran a gold-from-seawater swindle in the United States in the s, as did an English fraudster in the early s. After analysis of 4, water samples yielding an average of 0. As ofgold artifacts found at the Nahal Qana cave cemetery of the 4th millennium BC were the earliest from the Levant. The oldest known map of a gold mine was drawn in the 19th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt — BCwhereas the first written reference to gold was recorded in the 12th Dynasty around BC.
One of the earliest known maps, known as the Turin Papyrus Mapshows the plan of a gold mine in Nubia together with indications of the local geology. The primitive working methods are described by both Strabo and Diodorus Siculusand included fire-setting.
I finally decided to take the plunge and undertake the enormous task that so many others have. It's an arduous task. An emotionally draining task. An apparently endless task…. Moving this collection around over the years has become a huge headache. Those of you who have been down this road already know how nostalgic the trip can be. Now comes the controversial part. Some might only have one or two keepers. Surprising how much of Bill Ban tin 117 mp3 and Mitch Hedberg is disposable. I have strong feelings about this, in an almost philosophical way.
I hate clutter, and that extends to ban tin 117 mp3 digital realm, as well. Automatic for the PeopleREM: A soaring, beautiful album, except for that Platonic ideal of retarded earnestness, "Everybody Hurts". Ban tin 117 mp3 that worthless can of corn gone, this album is perfect. Celebrity SkinHole: The first four songs are the best EP to come out of the post-sanitization grunge era. The rest -- off to that great Recycle Bin new bollywood top 10 songs the sky.
Absolute BestAl Green: A good example of a collection that should stay complete. In My Tribe10, Maniacs: By my count, in this one album she tackles: In UteroNirvana: The '90s are well and truly gone. The Trinity SessionCowboy Junkies: Perfect record, perfectly sequenced. Something Ausbesserungswerkzeug cs2 found out in college: Television's Greatest Hits, Vol.
This is a fun one, an old CD of TV themes. YYYs -- those are my boys and girl and so far with this, their new record? Not feeling it. HootenanyThe Replacements: He ban tin 117 mp3 like the kind of guy who might track me down and punch me in the mouth. The White Albumthe Beatles. Surely, there will be repercussions for me here in the afterlife. Dare I violate The White Album?
I dare: Sorry, George. The list goes on. I realize that to some purists, the idea of whittling down albums like this is akin to ripping pages out a novel. Actually, come to think of it, I really need to lighten up these bookshelves. Readers interested in this impulse to 'clean up one's room', so to speak, might enjoy Michael Antman's essay on the subject, "The Future is an Empty Room". If many of the pieces in Charles Bukowski: On Drinking are the literary equivalent of watching dirt circle the drain after a vigorous shower, how long will we keep watching?
Ban tin 117 mp3 dream team, the Claypool Lennon Delirium, takes one of rock's most sacred venues by storm on New Year's Eve as they prepare to launch a nationwide tour supporting their ambitious second album South of Reality.
Hoodrat offers the warmer and gentler side to rapper Brian Marc's overall art, where the rhythms are bouncier and the grooves edge closer to electropop.
The album is a recognition of women and their ability to act as catalysts for a popular and personal insurgency. Inspired by an artful trip to Havana, Americana artist Seth Walker basks in trippy, vintage blues throughout his cool new single "Inside".
Inspired by a deep-seated desire for humankind to regain genuine connections, the scorching songs of which Boo Ray's latest ban tin 117 mp3 is comprised are among his most ambitious yet.
Austin dream pop outfit, Moving Panoramas deliver a powerful new single with "In Tune" that brings out their best side.
Fans of spirited, rollercoaster rock 'n' roll rejoice. The past is past, the present is hard to define, but the future is coming, and it just may be awesome. How do we measure the status of a performer's Holy Grail like the Apollo Theater in ? Ted Fox and James Otis Smith's beautifully realized, ban tin 117 mp3 graphic novel brings this rich history to life. Hugh Marsh performs an extensive exploration of the violin on Violinvocations where he awakens all the possible sounds, textures, and glitches.
All rights reserved. Popmatters is wholly independently owned and operated. Powered by Ban tin 117 mp3. Music Digital Downsizing: Ban tin 117 mp3 image found on Yatzer. When paring down your music collection, is it OK to prune songs off classic albums? An aesthetic and moral dilemma FloodThey Might Be Giants: Turns out you can throw out all of Side 2.
Who knew? Hmm… Readers interested in this impulse to 'clean up one's room', so to speak, might enjoy Michael Antman's essay on the subject, "The Future is an Empty Room". The Claypool Lennon Delirium Defies Time and Space to Ring in at the Fillmore Psych-rock dream team, the Claypool Lennon Delirium, takes one of rock's most sacred venues by storm on New Year's Eve as they prepare to launch a nationwide tour supporting their ambitious second album South of Reality.
Marc His Words: Brian "Sene" Marc on 'Hoodrat: Stuff With My Friends' Hoodrat offers the warmer and gentler side to rapper Brian Marc's overall art, where the rhythms are bouncier and the grooves edge closer to electropop. After Ten Years As a Troubadour, Boo Ray Lays It on the Line in 'Tennessee Alabama Fireworks' album stream premiere Inspired by a deep-seated desire for humankind to regain genuine connections, the scorching songs of which Boo Ray's latest album is comprised are among his most ambitious yet.
The Violin Is the Protagonist in Hugh Marsh's World Hugh Marsh performs an extensive exploration of the violin on Violinvocations where he awakens all ban tin 117 mp3 possible sounds, textures, and glitches. The 70 Best Albums of January — Within Winter's Clench. Jackie Chan's 10 Best Films. Never Say Nevermore: Edgar Allan Poe's 10 Best Stories. TIFF The 20 Best Americana Albums of Short Stories: The 12 Best Collections of Is There Hope for Knowledge?
On Robert Pasnau's 'After Certainty'.
Специальный мусорщик, которого они разработали, лишь немногим отличается от тех, что чистят наш" туалеты уже шесть месяцев. Подумай, от скольких хлопот ты избавишься. - Нет, - твердо возразила Эпонина. - Но тем не менее поблагодари октопауков за заботу.